Every programming language has provision for data structures. In the Python programming language, there are a total of 4 inbuilt data structures. These are namely list, tuple, dictionary, and set. Each of them is unique in its own right.
NumPy, also known as Numerical Python, was created by Travis Oliphant, accomplished by blending the features of Numarray into a Numeric package. NumPy has acted as a “replacement” for Matlab (used for technical computing) in the past; How? The combination of NumPy with packages like SciPy (known as Scientific Python) and Mat−plotlib (plotting library), has been treated as a Python Alternative to Matlab, thus being observed as a more modern and organized programming language. Since NumPy is open source, it is an extra advantage for programming aspirants and experienced developers.
Functional programming is a programming paradigm in which it is tried to bind each and everything in pure mathematical functions. It is a declarative type of programming style that focuses on what to solve rather than how to solve (aimed by the imperative style of programming).
Clojure, Common Lisp, Erlang, Haskell, and Scala are some of the notable programming languages following the functional programming approach. The programming paradigm is based on lambda calculus, which is briefly explained below: