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C++ and C#


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C# vs C++: Head to Head Comparison [2022]

Posted in C++, C#
C# vs C++

You probably already know that C# and C++ are two of the top programming languages of 2022. It’s for a good reason — both are easy to learn and are based on object-oriented programming concepts. However, you might be wondering how these two languages compare to each other. In the battle of C# vs C++, which one comes out on top?

In this head-to-head comparison, we’ll look into C# and C++ and discuss their features, applications, and uses. Then, of course, we’ll look at their similarities and differences and how both contribute to the programming world. So without further ado, let’s get right to it!

What is a component-oriented language?

Before we discuss C# versus C++, we must first define component-oriented language.

C# is also based on object-oriented programming, but it follows a component approach because it was originally designed for use in the .NET framework. With component-oriented programming, you do not have to bother about the internal workings of the code and can use the code as such because each block or module can work individually; i.e. each module is a stand-alone component.

Learning C# requires more prior experience than C++. If you already know C, then you can choose any of the two, but as a non-programmer, it will be better to learn C or C++ before learning C#. And yes, C# is a lot similar to Java!

What is C#? [Definition]

Do you pronounce C# as C-hash every time you see it? Well, I do – but it’s more appropriate to call it C-sharp because the language has some really sharp features. Developed by Microsoft for the .NET framework, C# is a high-level component-oriented programming language.

Is C# the same as C++? To put it simply, no. C# came out in 2000 as a competitor to Java. Originally known by the name “Cool,” this language has grown to become more popular with developers who need to create web or desktop applications.

C Sharp’s backbone is the programming language C, though Sharp makes a lot of improvements like automatic memory management, bound checking, and more.

Features of C#

C# is a simple yet powerful language that comes with a lot of features, such as:

  • Automatic memory management (garbage collection)
  • Supports all the object-oriented programming concepts – encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance
  • Robust due to good error handling features and type safety
  • Maximizes code reuse because of language interoperability, making it efficient
  • Structured programming language where a complex program can be split into smaller, reusable, and easy to understand methods.
  • Versioning allows easy deployment and management of applications
  • High-performance due to fast execution

.NET Common Language Runtime (.NET CLR)

Programs written in C# are converted into native code using CLR. In fact, CLR is the common runtime (as the name says) for all the .NET languages, and that is where the interoperability comes from!

You can build web applications, games, web services, windows apps, and forms using C# with ease.

C# Code Example

Here is a simple code that takes name as an input from a user and then prints it with a message –

using System;
namespacePrintNameApplication {
classPrintUserName {
staticvoidMain(string[] args) {
/* Write user name to console */
 String userName;
userName = Console.ReadLine();
 Console.WriteLine("Hello, " + userName + ". How are you today?");
 }
 }
}

Here Console.ReadLine() gets the value from the user, stores it in a variable named username, and prints the same using the Console.WriteLine method.

Check out some common C# interview questions here.

What is C++? [Definition]

Developed by Bjorne Stroustrup, C++ was initially born out of the idea to produce a powerful OOP language that has the powers of the aging yet still widely-used C. C++ is considered an “intermediate” language, as it toes the line between high-level and low-level language.

C++ is an object-oriented language, giving it a major advantage over C, which was a procedural language. With the object-oriented programming approach, data is the most important element. Data is tied more closely to the methods and functions operating on it, thus protecting it from any unwanted or accidental changes.

Essentially, C++ is ‘C with classes,’ and if you know C, you can learn C++ easily because C++ is often considered an “extended language.” Even beginners often choose C++, especially if they prefer an OOP approach. This language becomes even easier to pick up considering it has many libraries covering many of the major functions necessary for developing a program.

Features of C++

Let’s take a look at some of C++’s features:

  • A bottom-up approach focusing more on data than procedures
  • Case-sensitive language – for example, break and BREAK are different
  • Platform independent
  • Simple and fast high-level programming language
  • Compiler-based language (not interpreter-based)

C++ got its popularity as a huge improvement over C. For example, C++ introduced the concepts of OOPS, inline functions, method, and operator overloading.

C++ Code Example

Let us write our Print Username program in C++.

#include
usingnamespacestd;
intmain() {
char username[30];
cout << "Enter user name-";
cin >> username;
cout << "Hello, " << username << ". How are you today?";
return0;
}

Note that while we had defined username as String in C#, in C++ we declare it as a char array.

In this program, we have not created a class, but to get the OOPS essence, we should have a class definition in a program. In real-life applications, this is how we will be creating C++ programs -

#include
classtestclass
{
//member variables
int roll;
char name[30];
};
void testclass :: printname(void)
{
cout << “Enter your name: ”’
cin >> name;
cout << “\nGood morning, ” << name;
}
main(){
 testclass tc;
 tc.printname();
}

Thus, the general structure of a C++ program is something like:

  • include statements
  • class declaration
  • class functions and their definitions
  • main program

We have a comprehensive list of some of the best C++ tutorials.

How Similar is C# to C++?

Before we move on to discussing the differences between the two languages, let’s first answer the question, “is C# similar to C++?” As a language developed to compete with Java, C# has closer similarities to Java than to C++. However, there are still some key similarities between C# and C++, such as:

  • Both languages are object-oriented, although there is a slight difference between the syntax of C# and C++. Nevertheless, OOP concepts like polymorphism, inheritance, and classes are found in both.
  • Both C++ and C# are considered compiled languages, meaning before programs can run on a PC or on a server, their code must first convert to binaries. If you look at your applications, you’ll see .EXE files — these are prime examples of compiled files.

How is C# Different from C++?

Many new (and even experienced) developers sometimes find themselves asking the question, “what is the difference between C# and C++?” There are a few key differences, which we will take a look at below:

  • C# is a high-level programming language, whereas C++ is considered an intermediate-level programming language that adds some object-oriented features to C, its base language.
  • C# compiles its programs to CLR, or Common Language Runtime (in this case, .NET). C++ compiles into native code, which means it doesn’t have any need for a runtime system.
  • Comparing the two languages, you’ll find that C++ is more lightweight.
  • C++ offers much faster performance compared to C#, which is why it is often the choice when it comes to applications where speed is important. C++ is more popular for games and other software requiring fast performance, while C# is better suited to web and desktop apps less reliant on speed.
  • C# offers automatic garbage collection, while in C++, you will need to deallocate and allocate memory for objects manually.
  • C# is most commonly used for Windows-targeted apps, while C++ allows programs to work on Windows, Mac, and Linux. It’s worth noting that Microsoft is currently working on making it possible to run C# programs on other platforms.

C# vs C++: A Head-to-Head Comparison

Now that you understand the basics of both, let us do a head-to-head comparison.

Comparison

C++

C#

Supports Object-Oriented Programming

Supports OOPS concepts, but is not fully OOP

Supports OOP and component-based architecture (multi-paradigm language); fully OOP

Type of Language

A low-level programming language with some high-level language features thus called an intermediate-level language

A high-level programming language with no complex features, thus easy to understand.

Abstraction

Low level of abstraction

High level of abstraction

Memory Management

Memory management is manually done like in C

Memory management is automatic like in Java

Performance

Performance is exceptionally high

Good performance, but less than C++ due to having to compile first

Platform Support

Platform independent and can write programs for any OS (platform)

Mainly targeted for Windows and .NET framework; rarely used outside Windows

Error Warnings

Flexible, you can code anything, the compiler doesn’t generate warnings unless syntax is incorrect

More control, the compiler generates warnings and errors beforehand so that application runtime errors are reduced

Binaries and Compilation 

Compiled using the light-weight compiler

Interpreted using CLR into bytecodes thus includes all the libraries prior to compilation

Best Use Cases

Good for high-performance applications like gaming, device drivers and server-side applications

Great for web and desktop applications for computers, mobiles, and tablets

Data Types

Data types in C++ are similar to that of C.

Built-in – int, char, float, double, etc…

Derived – array, function, pointer

User-defined – enum, struct, union

Apart from the primitive data types like int, char, float, double, etc.., C# supports reference data types like String, arrays, classes, and interfaces, and pointer data type. It also supports enumerations and structures. C# also supports Collections

Generics

C++ implements generics using templates which is slightly complex

C# generics are flexible, however, limited in functionality as compared to that in C++. For more information on Generics, visit the Microsoft support page

Multiple Inheritances

Supports multiple inheritances

Doesn’t support multiple inheritances through class, but the same effect can be achieved through interfaces, thus simplifying architectural requirements

Difficulty

More complex, harder to understand, steeper learning curve

Simpler and easier to understand

Standalone Applications

Possible in C++

Not possible in C#

Which Should You Choose for Performance?

When comparing the performance of C# and C++, you’ll notice that C++ is a much faster language. The reason behind this is the fact that C# has to perform an extra compilation step before it converts to machine code. C++, on the other hand, compiles code directly into the machine’s code, which is why it is considered to be a “native” language.

Just going by this fact alone, C++ is the clear winner in the performance category.

However, many factors go into how a program or application performs beyond its core language. So although C++ is faster, key factors such as frameworks used, how the code was written, and more can contribute to an app’s overall performance.

Which Should You Choose for Game Development?

C# and C++ are both used in video games, but C++ is the better option when a game needs better native hardware performance. 

Your choice of language for game development might also depend on whether you plan to use a game engine and which game engine that might be.

C# is usually only really used when the game is being built for .NET or if you intend to work with C#-based game engines like Unity. On the other hand, popular game engines, such as Unreal and GameMaker, use C++.

C Sharp vs C++: Which is Better?

Well, that’s a tricky one to answer. 

C++ is more prominent and is considered one of the foundation languages for many new programming languages, so a lot of legacy code is still in C++. However, C# provides a higher level of abstraction and offers automatic garbage collection. 

While C++ is faster, it doesn’t warn you of compilation errors, which makes it more prone to errors. C#, on the other hand, is stricter and much more protected – it tells you most of the errors beforehand so you don’t get surprises when you run your program. 

When performance is not an issue and you want to build a web application, go for C#. If your application is for server-side software and needs to perform fast operations – C++ will be your ideal choice.

Conclusion

Looking at C# vs C++, we can conclude that:

  • C# was primarily developed as a Microsoft alternative for the robust Java programming language. It is a simple, general-purpose language that has been standardized, but we mostly see it with the .NET framework on Windows. C++, on the other hand, is a much more complex language to learn and work with.
  • C++ has to follow proper architecture, and its code has certain binding. C# code is developed as components so it can work as a set of stand-alone modules independent of each other. 
  • C++ comes with a lot of features that are extremely suitable for complex programming and gaming systems, whereas C# has simple and limited features that are usually enough for a simple web application.

So if you’re wondering which language to learn first, consider what you need for your project. If you need a more complex language that has a wider range of use cases, C++ might be the right one for you.

We hope that this article comparing C# to C++ has helped you figure out the similarities and differences between the languages. If you think we missed anything, feel free to let us know in the comments below!

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is C# or C++ better?

It depends on your intended use. If your project is a web or desktop app that needs an efficient programming language, C# would be better. On the other hand, if you want speed, C++ might be the key. Many developers who work on video games use C++ because of how fast it is.

2. Should you learn C# or C++ first?

Again, it depends on what your intended first use would be. If you need speed and performance right away (such as for developing a game), C++ might be the better choice for you. If you’d rather not have to concern yourself with coding details for everything and you need to finish your project fast, C# might be better.

3. Is C++ easier than C#?

When you compare C Sharp vs C Plus Plus, one of the first things you’ll notice is how much more complex C++ can be. As a result, C++ does have a much steeper learning curve due to this complexity. Put simply, C# is the easier to learn of the two.

4. Can I learn C# without knowing C++?

It is entirely possible to learn C# without knowing C++ at all. C# also has a shallow learning curve, at least in comparison to C++. Although when comparing C# vs C++ syntax, you might notice some similarities, which is why it might be easier for you to pick up C# if you already know C++.

5. Should I make a game in C++ or C#?

You can use both C# and C++ to make video games. However, one key difference between C# and C++ is that with C++, you can have better hardware control. This results in more game studios and developers choosing C++ (besides its faster performance) for game development. Note that C# might be a good option when working with a game engine such as Unity, which is primarily based on C Sharp.

6. Is C# written in C++?

C# is based on the C programming language.

Ramya Shankar

Ramya Shankar

A cheerful, full of life and vibrant person, I hold a lot of dreams that I want to fulfill on my own. My passion for writing started with small diary entries and travel blogs, after which I have moved on to writing well-researched technical content. I find it fascinating to blend thoughts and research and shape them into something beautiful through my writing. View all posts by the Author

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Simon Keefe
Simon Keefe

You *don't* need to declare char arrays in C++ - that's a C thing. For over a decade the STL has provided std::string which has extensive support for common string functions. Even more, because of templating, you can use the same common functions on strings as you can with vectors, lists etc, because of the introduction of iterators. This reads like it was written in 1993.

Levi Jacobs
Levi Jacobs

Which compiler is used for C#?

Vanessa Hill
Vanessa Hill

C# mainly depends on the .Net framework so there is no explicit need to install a compiler for C#. The compiler already comes with the .Net framework to work with C# codes.

Stephen Duffy
Stephen Duffy 10 Points

There are several.
JIT Compilers (which compile to CIL, then Native though JIT and CLR):
1. Roslyn (requires .Net Framework)
2. Mono
3. Mono AOT (which mostly compiles AOT, but some JIT)
AOT Compilers (AOT compile to native)
1. Roslyn AOT (targeted OS)
2. Mono AOT (partial JIT, requires Mono)
3. Mono FSC
4. Bartok
5. IL2CPP
6. IL2CPU

Pamela Davis
Pamela Davis

Does C# run in a VM?

Omar Ward
Omar Ward

VM is a virtual machine where you cannot run the direct code; you need to generate IL code to run on VM. C# produces IL and is compatible for running IL code on VM. The IL is compiled after running an application and generates native machine code. This completely compiled code is executed on a real processor.

Lois Baker
Lois Baker

Is C# a native code?

Louis Briggs
Louis Briggs

Native code is programming code that is compiled to run with a particular processor and with its given set of instructions. If the same program has to run on a different processor then the program will run in emulation mode on a new processor with the provided software. Native code is different from bytecode that used to run on the virtual machine.

Gayle Wade
Gayle Wade

What does => mean in C#?

Darla Long
Darla Long

This => token is used in two forms lambda operator and the separator in an expression body definition.
If used as a lambda operator, it separates the input parameter on the left side from the body on the right side of the operator.
If used as an expression then the return type of the expression must be implicitly convertible to the member’s return type of the expression.

Carlton Washington
Carlton Washington

Why is C# slower than C++?

Kenneth Martinez
Kenneth Martinez

C++ is compiled and lightweight while C# has a lot of overhead and binaries before the C# code gets compiled thus making C# slower than C++.

Ruby Higgins
Ruby Higgins

Is C# good for AI?

Felicia Garcia
Felicia Garcia

Any programming language will work for AI but it is better if we prefer generic programming language to do complex things, so C# will work well to some extent as other languages do.

Beth Tate
Beth Tate

Is C# fast enough for games?

Alberta Torres
Alberta Torres

If you are working and developing small games then C# will work for you. C# is not fast enough and efficient thus many companies are using C++. C# cannot handle heavy codes with ease thus it lacks performance. If we consider Unity game then it works well because it is written in C# but the engine itself is written in C++ that maintains the performance.

Clinton Tucker
Clinton Tucker

Is C# or C++ better for games?

Regina Henderson
Regina Henderson

If you are going for game development that has native support for all possible platforms then you should go for C++. C++ has the capability to manage the memory on any object which in turn increases the performance of your game. You have to manage it well else it may cause you problems. C++ has some flexibility than C#.

Kevin
Kevin

Have you heard of Unity? I've ran profilers before on very complex games written in C# and I can hit 60 fps just fine. Sure C++ is faster, however if you write it correctly, C# is just fine. The people who say C# can't handle game development are those that don't know how to optimize code, which is necessary in ANY language.

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