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JavaScript and TypeScript


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TypeScript vs JavaScript: Which is Best in 2022

Posted in JavaScript, TypeScript
TypeScript vs JavaScript

JavaScript is ubiquitous on the internet. As the most popular scripting language for many web projects, it has been the gateway programming language for many. But it’s not the only one of its kind.

TypeScript, an open-source programming language, is suitable for most large applications. It was developed by Microsoft in 2012, mainly because JavaScript code was becoming too complex to handle when it comes to large-scale applications.

This TypeScript vs JavaScript head-to-head comparison will look at the similarities and differences between the two.

TypeScript vs JavaScript: Highlights

  • JavaScript is better suited for small-scale applications, while TypeScript is better for larger applications.
  • TypeScript supports static typing but JavaScript does not.
  • TypeScript supports interfaces but JavaScript does not.
  • TypeScript features prototyping but JavaScript does not.
  • JavaScript supports running code on the browser, but TypeScript does not.
  • TypeScript supports modules but JavaScript does not.
  • In TypeScript, errors can be found and corrected during compile time; in JavaScript, eros can only be found during run-time as it is an interpreted language.
  • Functions can have optional parameters in TypeScript, but not JavaScript.

Difference Between JavaScript and TypeScript

The difference between JavaScript and TypeScript can be boiled down to a few aspects. That’s what we describe below.

What is JavaScript?

Developed by Netscape in collaboration with Sun Microsystems, JavaScript is one of the most popular core technologies of the web. From its beginnings, it has been an integral part of web applications making web pages interactive and dynamic. It is a high-level language, with JIT (Just-in-Time) compiler and dynamic typing.

For a long time, JS was only a client-side implementation, but some newer JS engines also have server-side implementations. The syntax of JS is similar to Java, and so are the standard libraries. As a starting point, JS is the best scripting language to learn. You can check out some JavaScript tutorials for more information.

Companies that use TypeScript include Microsoft, Google, PayPal, Netflix, and Uber.

Some of JavaScript’s unique features are:

  • Flexible, dynamic, and cross-platform
  • Used for both client-side and server-side implementations
  • Lightweight interpreted
  • Supported by all browsers
  • Weakly typed
  • JIT compilation

What is TypeScript?

Essentially, all your JavaScript code is also valid in TypeScript – that means TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript - it’s just JavaScript with more features. So, if you save your JavaScript (.js) file with a TypeScript (.ts) extension, it will work perfectly fine. But that does not mean that TypeScript and JavaScript are the same.

TypeScript is no different from JavaScript in its purpose but is used for developing large applications. TypeScript trans compiles (source to source compilation) to JavaScript. It follows an object-oriented programming language structure and supports features like classes, interfaces, namespaces, and inheritance. Static typing is possible in TypeScript through type annotations (numbers, string and boolean).

TypeScript is strongly typed. This makes it better to debug (during compile time) which is a more efficient way to code for large projects. TypeScript programs typically consist of modules, functions, variables, comments, expressions, and statements – just like any other full-fledged programming language.

When the code becomes huge, complex to handle, and prone to errors, it is better if the errors are caught during compile time itself. That is where TypeScript helps.

Companies that use TypeScript include Microsoft, Slack, Medium, and Accenture.

Some of TypeScript’s most prominent features are:

  • Easy to maintain and enhances project productivity.
  • Static typing and annotations are possible.
  • Supports object-oriented features like interface, inheritance, and classes.
  • Easy to debug and early detection of errors.
  • Supports ES6 (ECMAScript) that offers easier syntax to handle objects and inheritance features.
  • Good full-fledged IDE support.

TypeScript vs JavaScript: Head-to-Head Comparison

TypeScript JavaScript
Superset of JavaScript developed to overcome code complexity for large projects. A scripting language that helps create dynamic web page content.
Errors can be found and corrected during compile time. Errors can be found only during run-time as it is an interpreted language.
Strongly typed, supports both static and dynamic typing. Weakly typed, no option for static typing.
Converted into JavaScript code to be understandable for browsers. Can be directly used in browsers.
Since it is a superset, all the JavaScript libraries, and other JavaScript code works without any changes. JS libraries work by default.
There is support for ES3, ES4, ES5 and ES6. No support for compiling additional ES3, ES4, ES5 or ES6 features.
Supports modules, generics and interfaces to define data. No support for modules, generics or interface.
Functions can have optional parameters. Functions cannot have optional parameters.
Example code:
function multiply (a, b) {
return a*b;
}
var result = multiply(a, b);
console.log(‘The answer is - ’ + result);
Example code:
<script>
function multiply (a, b) {
return a*b;
}
var result = multiply(a, b);
document.write (‘The answer is – ’ + result);
</script>
Numbers and strings are considered as interfaces. Number and string are objects.
Powerful and intuitive language for large projects. Neat and clean, most suitable for simple web applications.
Community support is still growing. Huge community support with lots of documentation and support for solving issues.
Prototyping is possible No support for prototyping.
Takes time to learn and code, scripting knowledge is a must. Can be learned on the go, no prior scripting experience is needed.
Proper build setup (npm package) is required for static type definitions No build setup is required.

Conclusion

As we have already determined, JavaScript is most suited when your team is new and is working on small web projects. If you have a team with good expertise and knowledge and want them to handle a complex project, going for TypeScript is a perfect choice.

There’s no need to limit yourself to one when it comes to TypeScript or JavaScript. The TypeScript vs JavaScript differences are not as many as you think, though those differences may be significant.

That said, if you are looking for a learning curve and job opportunities, TypeScript has an edge over JavaScript. TypeScript developers are paid an average salary of $148,000 per year whereas JS developers are typically paid around $110,000 per year.

If you learn TypeScript, you can work on both JS as well as TypeScript projects. Start learning TypeScript today.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is TypeScript Better than JavaScript?

TypeScript is not a replacement for JavaScript. For smaller projects, using TypeScript could have high overhead costs because it takes time to trans compile the code into JavaScript, which is an extra step. JavaScript runs directly on the browser, so for small code chunks, it's easier to refresh and debug the code. In the case of TypeScript, we need a proper IDE to set up to run the code.

2. Is TypeScript Easier than JavaScript?

The difficulty levels are comparable. There are certain scenarios in which TypeScript may be tougher to wrap your head around, and likewise for JavaScript.

3. Should I Learn JavaScript or TypeScript?

JavaScript is probably the better choice for complete beginners. As mentioned earlier, TypeScript is just a superset of JavaScript. JS might be a better choice because it is very popular and could lead to more career opportunities to begin with.

4. Is TypeScript Safer than JavaScript?

There are many who say that TypeScript, as a newer version of JavaScript, is more secure than the latter. However, if you know what you are doing and follow the best security practices, JavaScript can also be secure for all intents and purposes.

5. Does Google Use JavaScript or TypeScript?

Google uses TypeScript for its web application framework Angular. An example of a product that uses TypeScript is Google Analytics.

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Abhimanyu  Krishnan

Abhimanyu Krishnan

With a bachelor's degree in Information Technology, Abhi has experience with several programming languages, including Python, JavaScript and C++. He is also an expert on blockchain technology and its development, having worked in the industry for several years. View all posts by the Author

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Karen Wood
Karen Wood

When should you not use TypeScript?

Glenn Shaw
Glenn Shaw

TypeScript is not complete in itself; you have to have basic knowledge of JavaScript. By using TypeScript you will face some risks that are not there in JavaScript. TypeScript somehow limits the benefits of JavaScript and obscures its strong sides. It is not completely open-sourced as claimed, it is stilled controlled by Microsoft.

Meghan Massey
Meghan Massey

How do I run a TypeScript file?

Jack Schmidt
Jack Schmidt

Basically you cannot directly run the TypeScript code in the browser. First, you need a run-time environment like NodeJs. Whenever you write the code it gets compiled recent version of the JavaScript. You can use Babel to convert the code in JavaScript that will be compatible with the browser. You can then use webpack for real projects if required. All these tools are required if you are going to run the TypeScript code.

Angela Hoffman
Angela Hoffman

Can we use alert () in TypeScript?

Maria Wright
Maria Wright

Yes, we can use alert in TypeScript, it is often used to make sure that information comes from the user and it displays some message to the user. It can be an alert message, confirmation message or any prompt information.

Lee Gibson
Lee Gibson

How do I run TypeScript in the browser?

Toby Banks
Toby Banks

Basically you cannot directly run the TypeScript code in the browser. First, you need a run-time environment like NodeJs. Whenever you write the code it gets compiled recent version of the JavaScript. You can use Babel to convert the code in JavaScript that will be compatible with the browser. You can then use webpack for real projects if required. All these tools are required if you are going to run the TypeScript code.

Terri Rios
Terri Rios

How do I practice TypeScript?

Kimberly Nichols
Kimberly Nichols

If you want to get along with TypeScript then you should be learning the basics first. The best way to learn and practice about basics is by developing some simple applications that will give you hands-on experience. You can even go for online editors to practice your codes and helps you learn the concept.

Santos Berry
Santos Berry

Can you mix TypeScript and JavaScript?

Walter Summers
Walter Summers

Latest with Babel 7 you can mix the JavaScript with TypeScript with the help of babel-loader and TypeScript loader. Choose the right loader for your project and this process combines both the compilers and merge the TypeScript output with pure JavaScript in your codebase. Then the output is given to the babel to get the ES5 code to run.

Gerardo West
Gerardo West

Is TypeScript slower than JavaScript?

Kelly Hines
Kelly Hines

Though TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript means whatever you write in TypeScript get converted into JavaScript. If we consider the compilation of the code then TypeScript works faster as the code gets compiled easily and faster. Typescript code converted to JavaScript.

Inez Carroll
Inez Carroll

Should I use TypeScript or es6?

Leo Howell
Leo Howell

TypeScript is the superset of JavaScript while es6 is the next generation syntax of JavaScript. TypeScript provides typing, es6 additional features with great tool support. All the features combined makes the project much compact and clear, whatever the size of the project. But there is always an advantage of using Typescript for small developments.

Rosie Ramsey
Rosie Ramsey

Is TypeScript a transpiler?

Israel Reed
Israel Reed

Yes, TypeScript is a transpiler. It means that one high-level programming language source code is converted into another high-level programming language. It is done by a tool that is called a transpiler. Some documents referred it to as the TypeScript compiler and the process is called compilation.

Bradley Copeland
Bradley Copeland

Does TypeScript improve performance?

Miriam Carlson
Miriam Carlson

Yes, TypeScript improves performance as the code is compiled into the minimized form and therefore code runs faster. It is somehow slower to code but it saves time by prompting the errors so you can debug them within no time. Code is much easier to understand and makes it time saver for a programmer.

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