Let us begin with some overview of the two languages.
What is Java?
Java is a class-based, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language designed to have as few implementation dependencies. It was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and was released in1995. Java has several applications in several areas, web development, and mobile application development, being its major applications. Apart from it, it is also used in embedded systems, desktop, and scientific applications, among other things. Java supports 3 billion devices worldwide, including computers, smartphones, printers, ATMs, home security systems, and more.
History of Java
- The project was initiated by James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton.
- Sun Microsystems released it in 1995, and public implementation was released as Java 1.0 in 1996.
- It promised WORA (Write Once Run Anywhere) functionality providing no-cost run-time on popular platforms.
- Java 1.0 compiler was re-written in Java by Arthur van Hoff.
- Java 2 was released in December 1998 with multiple configurations built for different platforms. Later it was renamed as Java EE, Java ME, and Java SE.
- In 1997, Sun Microsystems approached various standard bodies like ISO/IEC JTC 1 and Ecma International to formalize it bu soon withdrew from the process.
- In November 2006, JVM was released.
Features of Java
- Simple syntax and easy to learn.
- Object-Oriented and follows OOPs concepts such as inheritance, abstraction, polymorphism, encapsulation.
- Robust as it makes an effort to eliminate error-prone codes. Also, Java offers Memory Management and mishandled Exceptions by automatic Garbage Collector and Exception Handling.
- Platform Independent, it follows its WORA functionality by running on any platform with JRE's help (Java Runtime Environment)
- Secure, Java's secure features enable us to develop a virus-free, temper free system.
- Multithreading, Java multithreading feature makes it possible to write a program to do many tasks simultaneously. Thus, it utilizes the same memory and other resources to execute multiple threads at the same time.
- Architectural Neutral, the compiler generates bytecodes, which have nothing to do with particular computer architecture.
- High Performance, Java enables high performance with the use of a just-in-time compiler.
- Distributed as programs can be designed to run on computer networks.
- In 1993, Mosaic Web Browser was released, the first browser with GUI
- In 1994, Netscape Navigator was released a polished web browser
- In 1995, Netscape decided to add scripting languages to the navigator to make dynamic web pages.
- Object-Centered Script Language: It supports features like Polymorphism, i.e., an object can take many forms.
- Client Edge Technology: The client refers to the Web Browser concerning the user. The client can have full control over the content, which is updated in servers due to the client's edge technology in Java Script.
- Validation of User's Input: Form validation allows users to interact with clients through filling forms through web pages.
- Else and IF Statement: To perform logical expression.
- Interpreter Centered: The scripting language is built with interpreter centered allowing users to get the output without using the compiler.
- Ability to Perform In Build Function: JS provides many in-built functions like isNAN(), Number(), parseFloat() and parseInt().
- Case Sensitive Format: The codes written in Upper Case or Lower Case format are treated the same way.
- Statements Looping: Performing the same operations on repeat, i.e., the same code runs in repeat for an unspecified or specified amount of time.
- Handling Events: The Java Script has the ability to control the response on the website. It can control when the user tries to perform any operation the server handled by the client like clicking on links and options, interaction response over the website, etc.
Object-Oriented Programming: Both languages have access to OOPs concepts such as abstraction, inheritance, and polymorphism that require the developers to code objects and their relationships in each other's context.
Front-end Development: Java and JS both extend their applications in frontend development. JS can be embedded directly into HTML, which is implemented as a framework or a library; whereas, Java is used as Java Applet.
The significant difference between the two languages is their programming paradigm i.e., away a programming language approaches a problem to solve it. Java is an OOP language is based on the concepts of objects. On the other hand, JS is a multi-paradigm language and can be used as OOP, procedural or scripting language.
Type checking verifies the "type" of a variable. JS is a dynamical type language, i.e., the type of variable is unknown until program compilation. On the contrary, Java is a statically typed language, so each variable has to be associated with a type upon declaration.
The concept of inheritance allows an entity to inherit or derive the properties of another entity. Java allows a class to derive the properties of another class. It also supports multiple inheritances i.e.; a class can derive properties from multiple classes.
JS is based on the concept of prototypes and does not support multiple inheritances.
Functioning overloading allows the programming language to define two or more functions with the same name for executing different tasks. The functions, however, differ based on their arguments. Java supports function overloading, whereas JS doesn't.
Multithreading reduces execution time by executing more than one part of the program concurrently, thereby utilizing CPU power. Java supports multithreading, whereas JS does not support it as the interpreter inside the browser is single-threaded.
|Programming Paradigm||Strictly object-oriented.||The language is multi-paradigm. It can be used as OOP, procedural, or scripting.|
|Type Checking||Strongly typed, type of the variable must be specified before compilation.||Weakly typed, the type of the variable is unknown until compilation.|
|Code Execution||Java applications run on any JVM or browser.||JS code is browser-specific as it is developed only for browsers.|
|Objects||Java objects are class-based.||Objects in JS are prototype-based.|
|Memory Usage||Memory usage is more.||Memory usage is less.|
|Multithreading||Supports multithreading.||Does not support multithreading.|
|Language Independency||Java is a standalone language.||JS is contained within a webpage and embedded in HTML.|
|Approach to Concurrency||Java has a thread-based approach to concurrency.||JS has an event-based approach to concurrency.|
|Closures||Does not supports closures.||Supports closures.|
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