Data Structures and Algorithms and Interview Questions

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Top Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers

Posted in Data Structures and Algorithms, Interview Questions

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A data structure can be any organization, management, and storage format of data that allows efficient access and modification. It is a collection of data values, relationships amongst them, and the various functions or operations that can be applied to the data.

Data structures are a foundational concept of programming which is immensely utilized in algorithm design. Hence, it is important for any programmer, irrespective of the programming language, to have a good understanding of data structures.

Top Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers

Any programming language interview can have a few or many questions based on data structures. Here are the top data structure interview questions and answers with their respective answers for you:

Question: What do you understand by a data structure?

Answer: A data structure offers a convenient way of organizing as well as manipulating the data. Simply put, it allows the data to be used in an effective manner. There is a galore of data structures and each of them is suitable for a distinct set of applications.

For instance, compiler implementations use hash tables for looking up identifiers. Similarly, B-trees are suitable for the implementation of databases. Data structures are virtually applied to all areas relying on data. Some of the most important ones are:

  • Artificial intelligence
  • Compiler design
  • Database management
  • Graphics
  • Numerical analysis
  • Operating system
  • Statistical analysis

Question: How does a linear data structure differ from a non-linear data structure?

Answer: If the elements of a data structure form a sequence or a linear list then it is called a linear data structure. On the other hand, non-linear data structures are those in which the traversal of nodes is done in a non-linear way.

Arrays, linked lists, stacks, and queues are examples of linear data structures, while graphs and trees are those of non-linear data structures.

Question: What are the various applications of Data Structures?

Answer: In data structures, data is organized in a way that makes it efficient to be used. Some practical applications of data structures are:

  • Storing data in a tabular form. For example, contact details of a person. This is done through arrays.
  • Arrays are widely used in image processing and speech processing.
  • Music players and image sliders use Linked Lists to move to next or previous items.
  • The most common application of the data structure, Stack is the undo operation, where the last item shows up first.
  • A Queue is used for job scheduling, the arrangement of data packets for communication.
  • A Tree is used by the Decision Tree algorithm which is widely used for machine learning and decision making.
  • Technologies like Blockchain, cryptography are based on Hashing algorithms.
  • Matrices are widely used to represent data and plotting graphs, performing statistical analysis.

Question: Explain the difference between file structure and storage structure?


  • File Structure: A hard disk or external device (such as USB), stores data that remains intact till manually deleted. Such a representation of data into secondary or auxiliary memory is called a file structure. 
  • Storage Structure:  In this type of structure, data (variables, constants, etc.) are stored in the main memory, i.e. RAM, and is deleted once the function that uses this data gets completed.

Question: Please enumerate the various operations that can be performed on a data structure.

Answer: Following are the various operations that can be performed on a data structure:

  • Deletion – Deleting an existing element from the data structure
  • Insertion – Adding a new element to the data structure
  • Searching – Find the location of an element, if it exists, in the data structure
  • Sorting – Arranging elements of the data structure in:
    • Ascending or descending order for numerical data
    • Dictionary order for alphanumeric data
  • Traversal – Accessing each element of the data structure once for processing

Question: Explain the postfix expression.

Answer: In a postfix expression, the operator is fixed after the operands. Some examples are:

B++ (i.e. B+B)
AB+ (i.e. A+B)
ABC*+ (i.e. A+B*C)
AB*CD*+ (i.e. A*B + C*D)

Question: Can you tell which data structures are used for BFS and DFS of a graph?

Answer: BFS (Breadth-First Search) of a graph uses a queue. Although DFS (Depth First Search) of a graph makes use of a stack, it can also be implemented using recursion that uses function call stack.

Question: Explain a multidimensional array.

Answer: If an array has more than two dimensions, it is called a multidimensional array. They are also called an array of arrays. For example, a 3-D array will look like,

   int 3darr[10][20][30] 

– this array can store 10*20*30 elements.

Assigning values

int ndarr[2][3][5] = {{{1,2,4,5},{5,6,7,9}, {6,5,4,3}}, {{1,1,3,4}, {2,3,4,6}, {5,6,7,8}}};

Accessing elements

To access each element, we need three nested loops, say i,j,k, so that we can get the value as ndarr[i][j][k]

Question: Please explain stack and also mention some of its important applications.

Answer: Stack is a linear data structure that follows either LIFO (Last In First Out) or FILO (First In Last Out) approach for accessing elements. Push, pop, and peek are the basic operations of a stack.

Some notable applications of a stack are:

  • Check for balanced parentheses in an expression
  • Evaluation of a postfix expression
  • Implement two stacks in an array
  • Infix to postfix conversion
  • Reverse a string

Question: What is a queue? How is it different from a stack?

Answer: A queue is a form of linear structure that follows the FIFO (First In First Out) approach for accessing elements. Dequeue, enqueue, front, and rear are basic operations on a queue. Like a stack, a queue can be implemented using arrays and linked lists.

In a stack, the item that is most recently added is removed first. Contrary to this, the item least recently added is removed first in case of a queue.

Question: What do you understand by a binary search? What is the best scenario of using it?

Answer: A binary search is an algorithm that starts with searching in the middle element. If the middle element is not the target element then it further checks whether to continue searching the lower half of the higher half. The process continues until the target element is found.

The binary search works best when applied to a list with sorted or ordered elements.

Question: Could you explain how to reference all the elements in a one-dimension array?

Answer: We can reference all the elements in a one-dimension array using an indexed loop. The counter runs from 0 to the maximum array size, say n, minus one. All elements of the one-dimension array are referenced in sequence by using the loop counter as the array subscript.

Question: Please explain what do you understand by FIFO and LIFO?

Answer: Both FIFO and LIFO are approaches to accessing, storing, and retrieving elements from a data structure. LIFO stands for Last In First Out. In this approach, recently stored data is the one to be extracted first.

FIFO is a contraction for First In First Out. Following this approach, the data that is stored the least recently will be extracted first.

Question: What is a Linked List Data structure

Answer: In a Linked List data, elements are stored linearly, but the physical placements do not give the order in the memory; instead, each element points to the next node. The last one points to a terminator indicating the end of the list. There are many types of Linked List – single, double, circular, multiple. A simple singly LinkedList can be drawn as:

Linked List Data structure

Question: Do you know how does dynamic memory allocation help in managing data?

Answer: Dynamic memory allocation helps in storing simple structured data types. Moreover, it can combine separately allocated structured blocks for forming composite structures that contract and expand as required.

Question: What is the difference between NULL and VOID?

Answer: While NULL is a value, VOID is a data type identifier. A variable assigned with a NULL value represents an empty value. The VOID is used for identifying pointers having no initial size.

Question: If you are using C language to implement the heterogeneous linked list, what pointer type should be used?

Answer: We can use void pointers. Unsigned char pointers are another option. This way, we can store any data type in the list. Example,

  struct a{
struct a *next;
s_ize d_size;

Question: How does a POP operation differ from a PUSH operation?

Answer: Both PUSH and POP operations pertain to a stack. Data is added to the stack using the PUSH operation, while it is retrieved using the POP operation.

Question: Could you explain how does variable declaration affect memory allocation?

Answer: The total amount of memory to be allocated or reserved in the case of a variable declaration depends on the data type used. For instance, declaring an integer type variable reserves 4 bytes of memory space while declaring a double variable reserve 8 bytes of the available memory.

Question: Write the syntax in C to create a node in the singly linked list.


newNode = Node(data);    //creates a new node.

Question: Please explain the concept of data abstraction.

Answer: Data abstraction helps in dividing complex data problems into smaller, easy-to-manage parts. It starts with specifying all the involved data objects and the various operations to be performed on the same without stressing too much on the way data is stored.

Question: Can you write a C program to insert a node in a circular singly list at the beginning?

Answer: In a circular LinkedList, the last pointer points to the head (first node). For this, we use an external pointer that points to the last node, and the last->next points to the first node. We take the last node pointer because it saves us from traversing the entire list while inserting a node in the beginning or end. 

Program steps

  • Create a node N
  • N->next = last->next
  • last->next = N


 struct Node *addBeginning(struct Node *last, int data) 
/*check if list empty, if so create a node, else proceed  as below*/
 // dynamically create a node
 struct Node *N 
       = (struct Node *)malloc(sizeof(struct Node)); 
 // Assign the data. 
 N -> data = data; 
 // last pointer becomes the first node 
 N -> next = last -> next; 
 last -> next = N; 
 return last; 

Question: How will you insert a new item in a binary search tree?

Answer: As a binary search tree doesn’t allow for duplicates, the new item to be inserted must be unique. Assuming it is, we will proceed with checking whether the tree is empty or not. If it is empty, then the new item will be inserted in the root node.

However, if the tree is non-empty then we will refer to the key of the new item. When it is smaller than the root item’s key, the new item will be added to the left subtree. If the new item’s key is bigger than the root item’s key, then the new item is inserted into the right subtree.

Question: Could you explain how does the selection sort work on an array?

Answer: The selection sort begins with finding the smallest element. It is switched with the element present at subscript 0. Next, the smallest element in the remaining subarray is located and switched with the element residing in the subscript 1.

The aforementioned process is repeated until the biggest element is placed at the subscript n-1, where n represents the size of the given array.

Question: Write the pseudocode to perform in-order traversal on a binary tree.

Answer: In-order traversal is a depth-first traversal. The method is called recursively to perform traversal on a binary tree. The code is as follows:

struct btnode
   struct btnode *left;
   struct btnode *right;
*root = NULL, *temp = NULL;
void inorder(struct btnode *temp)
   if (root == NULL)
       printf("Root is empty");
   if (temp->left != NULL)    
   if (temp->right != NULL)    

Question: Write the recursive C function to count the number of nodes present in a binary tree.


static int counter = 0;
int countnodes(struct node *root)
   if(root != NULL)
   return counter;

Question: Write a recursive C function to calculate the height of a binary tree.

Answer: To find the height using recursion, we find the maximum of the height of subtrees on the left and right sides and then add it with the root. 

struct node
int data;
struct node *left;
struct node *right;
int height(struct node *node)
if(node == NULL)
return 0;
int l_side;
int r_side;
l_side = height(node -> left);
r_side = height(node -> right);
if(l_side > r_side)
return l_side + 1;
return r_side + 1;


Question: Do you know how the memory is affected by signed and unsigned numbers?

Answer: For signed numbers, the first bit is reserved for indicating whether the number is positive or negative. Hence, it has one bit less for storing the value. Unlike signed numbers, unsigned numbers have all the bits available for storing the number.

The effect of the aforementioned can be seen in the value range available to signed and unsigned numbers. While an unsigned 8-bit number can have a range of 0 to 255, an 8-bit signed number has a range varying from -128 to 127.

Question: Do all declaration statements result in a fixed memory reservation?

Answer: Except for pointers, all declaration statements result in a fixed memory reservation. Instead of allocating memory for storing data, a pointer declaration results in allocating memory for storing the address of the pointer variable.

For pointers, actual memory allocation for the data happens during the runtime.

Question: How does an array differ from a stack?

Answer: A stack follows the LIFO approach. This means that data manipulation follows a specific sequence where the latest data element is the one to be retrieved first.

Unlike a stack, an array doesn’t follow any particular sequence for adding or retrieving data. Adding or retrieving an element in an array is done by referring to the array index.

Question: What do you understand by an AVL tree?

Answer: An AVL tree is a type of BST (Binary Search Tree), which is always in a partially-balanced state. The measure of the balance is given by the difference of the heights of the subtrees from the root node of the AVL tree.

Question: Please explain how does an Array differs from a Linked List?

Answer: Following are the various differences between an array and a linked list:

  • Additional Memory – For each element belonging to a linked list, extra memory space is required for storing the pointer. Arrays have no such requirement
  • Cache – In comparison to linked lists, arrays have better cache locality, which can significantly enhance the performance in various scenarios
  • Insertion and Deletion – It is easy to add or delete elements in a linked list. Inserting and deleting elements for an array is comparatively expensive
  • Random Access – Linked lists do not allow random access, while arrays do
  • Size – While the size of an array is fixed, the size of a linked list is dynamic

Question: What do you understand by Infix, Prefix, and Postfix notations?


  • Infix Notation Operators are written between the operands. This is the standard way of writing expressions. For example, A * (B + C) / D
  • Postfix Notation/Reverse Polish Notation – Operators are written after the operands, hence the name. For instance, A B C + * D /
  • Prefix Notation/Polish Notation – Operators are written before the operands. / * A + B C D is the prefix notation equivalent of the aforementioned postfix notation example

Question: Please explain the Linked List and its various types.

Answer: In a linked list, each element is a distinct object. Like arrays, linked lists are a linear type of data structure. In addition to data, every element of a linked list comprises a reference to the next element. Various types of linked lists are:

  • Singly Linked List – Each node stores the address or reference of the next node in the linked list, leave for the last node that stores NULL
  • Doubly Linked List – Each node keeps two references. One point to the next node and the other points to the previous node
  • Circular Linked List – In this type of linked list, all nodes are connected to form a circle. Hence, there is no NULL at the end. A circular linked list can either be a single circular linked list or a double circular linked list

Question: How will you implement a stack using queue and vice-versa?

Answer: It is possible to implement a stack using two queues. Further, there are two options; either to make the push operation costly or the pop operation costly.

A queue can also be implemented with two stacks. Moreover, there are two options; either to make the enQueue operation costly or the deQueue operation costly.

Question: Which data structures are used for implementing LRU cache?

Answer: By organizing items in order of use, a Least Recently Used or LRU cache allows quick identification of an item that hasn’t been put to use for the longest time. Two data structures are used for implementing an LRU cache:

  • Queue – Implemented using a doubly-linked list. The maximum size of the queue is determined by the total number of frames available i.e. the cache size. While the most recently used pages will be near the rear end of the queue, the least recently pages will be near the queue’s front end
  • Hashmap – Having page number as the key along with the address of the corresponding queue node as the value

Question: Could you give a brief explanation of the various approaches for developing algorithms?

Answer: There are 3 main approaches to developing algorithms:

  • Divide and Conquer – Involves dividing the entire problem into a number of subproblems and then solving each of them independently
  • Dynamic Programming – Identical to the divide and conquer approach with the exception that all sub-problems are solved together
  • Greedy Approach – Finds a solution by choosing the next best option

Question: Please enumerate some examples of greedy and divide and conquer algorithms.

Answer: Some examples of algorithms that follow greedy approach are:

  • Dijkstra’s Minimal Spanning Tree
  • Graph – Map Coloring
  • Graph – Vertex Cover
  • Job Scheduling Problem
  • Knapsack Problem
  • Kruskal’s Minimal Spanning Tree
  • Prim’s Minimal Spanning Tree
  • Travelling Salesman

Following are some notable instances of the divide and conquer approach:

Question: How does insertion sort differ from selection sort?

Answer: Both insertion and selection approaches maintain two sub-lists, sorted and unsorted. Each takes one element from the unsorted sub-list and place it into the sorted sub-list. The distinction between the two sorting processes lies in the treatment of the current element.

Insertion sort takes the current element and places it in the sorted sublist at the appropriate location. Selection sort, on the other hand, searches for the minimum value in the unsorted sub-list and replaces the same with the present element.

Question: What do you understand by shell sort?

Answer: The shell sort can be understood as a variant of the insertion sort. The approach divides the entire list into smaller sub-lists based on some gap variable. Each sub-list is then sorted using insertion sort.

Question: Can you explain tree traversal?

Answer: The process for visiting all the nodes of a tree is called tree traversal. It always starts from the root node and there are three ways of doing it:

  • In-order Traversal
  • Pre-order Traversal
  • Post-order Traversal

Question: Please explain a spanning tree. What is the maximum number of spanning trees a graph can have?

Answer: A spanning tree is a subset of a graph that has all the vertices but with the minimum possible number of edges. Neither a spanning tree can be disconnected and nor does it have cycles.

The maximum number of spanning trees that a graph can have depended on how connected the graph is. A complete undirected graph with n number of nodes can have a maximum of nn-1 number of spanning trees.

Question: How does the Kruskal’s Algorithm work?

Answer: Kruskal’s algorithm treats a graph as a forest and each node in it as an individual tree. A tree connects to another tree only if it:

  • Has the least cost among all the available options
  • Does not violate the MST properties

Question: What do you understand by Heap in data structure?

Answer: A Heap data structure is a special balanced binary tree in which the root node key is compared with its children and accordingly arranged. A Heap data structure can be of two types:

  • Min-Heap – The parent node has a key-value less than its children
  • Max-Heap – The parent node has a key-value greater than its children

Question: Please explain recursion.

Answer: The ability to allow a function or module to call itself is called recursion. Either a function f calls itself directly or calls another function ‘g’ that in turn calls the function ‘f. The function f is known as the recursive function and it follows the recursive properties:

  • Base criteria – Where the recursive function stops calling itself
  • Progressive approach – Where the recursive function tries to meet the base criteria in each iteration

Question: Can you explain the Tower of Hanoi problem?

Answer: The Tower of Hanoi is a mathematical puzzle that comprises of three tower (or pegs) and more than one ring. Each ring is of varying size and stacked upon one another such that the larger one is beneath the smaller one.

The goal of the Tower of Hanoi problem is to move the tower of the disk from one peg to another without breaking the properties.

Question: How do the BFS (Breadth-First Search) and DFS (Depth First Search) algorithms work?

Answer: The BFS algorithm traverses a graph in the breadthwards motion. It uses a queue to remember the next vertex for starting a search when a dead end occurs in any iteration.

A DFS algorithm traverses a graph in the depthward motion. It uses a stack for remembering the next vertex to start a search when coming across a dead end in an iteration.

Question: What do you understand by hashing?

Answer: The technique of converting a range of key values into a range of indexes of an array is known as hashing. It is possible to create associative data storage using hash tables where data indices can be found by providing the corresponding key values.

Question: Please explain an MST (Minimum Spanning Tree). Also, explain how does Prim’s algorithm find a minimum spanning tree.

Answer: An MST or Minimum Spanning Tree is a spanning tree in a weighted graph that has the minimum weight of all the possible spanning trees. Each node is treated as a single tree by Prim’s algorithm while adding new nodes to the spanning tree from the available graph.

Question: Can you explain the interpolation search technique?

Answer: The interpolation search technique is an enhanced variant of binary search. It works on the probing position of the required value.

Question: How will you check whether the given Binary Tree is BST or not?

Answer: Simply do inorder traversal of the given binary tree while keeping track of the previous key value. If the current key value is greater, then continue, otherwise return false. The binary tree is BST if the inorder traversal of the binary tree is sorted.


That sums up the list of the 50 top data structure interview questions. Looking to further your data structure knowledge? These DS interview Questions are also helpful in other programming interviews too. Try these best data structure tutorials and follow this Udemy course for cracking top-notch programming companies' interviews. The Coding Interview Bootcamp: Algorithms + Data Structures.

Data structure interview questions are essential for any programming interview, so here I suggest you: Problem Solving with Algorithms and Data Structures Using Python SECOND EDITION 2nd Edition.

Good luck!

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Swapnil Banga

Swapnil Banga

Software engineer, hardware enthusiast, writer by avocation and a gamer. Swapnil has been working on Hackr for a large part of his career. Primarily working on Laravel, he is also the author of our React Native Android app. When not in front of a screen, you will find him devouring a novel or listening to heavy metal. View all posts by the Author

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Darrin Evans
Darrin Evans

Define the graph data structure?

Emanuel Lewis
Emanuel Lewis

A graph is a common data structure that consists of a finite set of nodes (or vertices) and a set of edges connecting them. A pair (x,y) is referred to as an edge, which communicates that the x vertex connects to the y vertex. In the examples below, circles represent vertices, while lines represent edges.

Marta Montgomery
Marta Montgomery

List some applications of Tree-data structure?

Johnnie Gibbs
Johnnie Gibbs

Heap is a tree data structure that is implemented using arrays and used to implement priority queues. B-Tree and B+ Tree: They are used to implement indexing in databases. Syntax Tree: Used in Compilers. K-D Tree: A space partitioning tree used to organize points in K dimensional space.

Bill Cannon
Bill Cannon

What are the differences between the B tree and B+ tree?

Randolph Tran
Randolph Tran

The difference in B+ tree and B tree is that in B tree the keys and records can be stored as internal as well as leaf nodes whereas in B+ trees, the records are stored as leaf nodes and the keys are stored only in internal nodes. The records are linked to each other in a linked list fashion.

Derek Ramos
Derek Ramos

What is the maximum number of nodes in a binary tree of height k?

Kyle Haynes
Kyle Haynes

The maximum number of nodes in a binary tree of depth K is 2K-1, k >=1 . Here the depth of the tree is 1. A binary tree is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two children, which are referred to as the left child and the right child.

Charles Gregory
Charles Gregory

What is a dequeue?

Brian Dixon
Brian Dixon

A deque, also known as a double-ended queue, is an ordered collection of items similar to the queue. It has two ends, a front, and rear, and the items remain positioned in the collection. In a sense, this hybrid linear structure provides all the capabilities of stacks and queues in a single data structure.

Cecilia Porter
Cecilia Porter

Write the C program to insert a node in circular singly list at the beginning.

Joshua Stevens
Joshua Stevens

Step1. Create the new node
Step2. Set the new node’s next to itself (circular!)
Step3. If the list is empty, return new node.
Step4. Set our new node’s next to the front.
Step5. Set tail’s next to our new node.
Step6. Return the end of the list.

Omar Weaver
Omar Weaver

Write the syntax in C to create a node in the singly linked list.

Delores Cross
Delores Cross

void creat()
char ch;
struct node *new_node,*current;
new_node=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node));

printf("nEnter the data : ");

printf("nDo you want to creat another : ");

Valerie Christensen
Valerie Christensen

What are the advantages of Linked List over an array?

Antoinette Park
Antoinette Park

The principal benefit of a linked list over a conventional array is that the list elements can be easily inserted or removed without reallocation or reorganization of the entire structure because the data items need not be stored contiguously in memory or on disk, while restructuring an array at run-time is a much more expensive operation. Linked lists allow insertion and removal of nodes at any point in the list, and allow doing so with a constant number of operations by keeping the link previous to the link being added or removed in memory during list traversal.

Gladys Ward
Gladys Ward

How are the elements of a 2D array are stored in the memory?

Florence Fernandez
Florence Fernandez

A 2D array is stored in the computer's memory one row following another. ... If each data value of the array requires B bytes of memory, and if the array has C columns, then the memory location of an element such as score[m][n] is (m*c+n)*B from the address of the first byte.

Grady Higgins
Grady Higgins

Which notations are used in Evaluation of Arithmetic Expressions using prefix and postfix forms?

Tom Bennett
Tom Bennett

Polish notation, also known as prefix notation, is a form of notation for logic, arithmetic, and algebra. Its distinguishing feature is that it places operators to the left of their operands. In simple words, if you are prefixing the operator to the number, it is called Polish notation.