Quality assurance (QA) is any methodical procedure to determine whether a software product or service satisfies specified requirements. It is a crucial step that ensures the proper functioning and scalability of software products, sometimes through software testing. In a nutshell, quality assurance is a comprehensive process of preventing quality failures in software products.
Interested in a career in QA? You’ll need to put your best foot forward with an impeccable resume and cover letter. Then, there’s the interview. Wouldn’t it be great if you could review a set of interview questions for quality assurance beforehand?
We’ve got you covered with this comprehensive set of QA interview questions that will help you reduce interview anxiety.
Next on the docket? QA interview questions and answers for both entry-level and associate-position interviews. Let’s get started!
Click here to download Hackr.io’s QA Testing Interview Questions and Answers PDF.
QA Interview Questions and Answers
We’ve divided our list of quality assurance interview questions into three levels: basic, intermediate, and advanced.
Basic QA Interview Questions
Here is a list of entry-level QA engineer interview questions and answers to help you ace your upcoming interview. Pro tip? Takes notes of any questions for quality assurance interviews you have trouble with. That way, you know to come back to them later!
1. Define quality assurance.
Quality Assurance (QA) ensures software complies with all requirements and specifications regarding maintenance, reliability, and performance.
2. What distinguishes software testing from quality assurance?
QA (Quality Assurance) is a structured approach to verify whether or not the software product under development meets an organization’s quality standards. You might use software testing to confirm the final product satisfies user needs and operates as expected.
3. Describe testware.
Testware is any test-related artifact required to prepare and carry out a test, such as test cases, test data, and test plans.
4. What distinguishes a build from a release?
A build is a copy of the program or application that the development team gives to the testing group. Testing needs to be done on the build version of the software. Normally, a build version is used for sanity testing. The software's build version is created more frequently than its release version. The testing team receives an installable software build with a number assigned to it from the development team.
The release is the term used to describe the program that the testing team distributes to the final users. Software no longer needs to be tested after it has been released. The software's release versions are created less frequently than its build versions. Testers or developers assign the number to installable software before it becomes live to the customers.
5. What do "bug release" and "bug leaking" mean?
A “bug release” occurs when the development team transfers the software product to the testing team to address defects. At this time, there’s lots of time to fix the bugs before the program goes live, so it’s a low-severity issue.
A bug leak occurs when the end users or real users of the software product identify flaws in it after the testing team finds them.
6. Can you explain data-driver testing?
Data-driven testing examines the various input values on the application under test. These numbers are directly read from the data files like sheets, csv files, data pools, or a variety of other formats.
7. Describe the steps in the bug cycle.
- The tester reports the bug, then shares it with the development manager with an open status.
- The development team determines whether the bug is truly a bug or other inconsistency.
- If the bug is legitimate, the team will determine if it falls within the scope. Defects are delayed if the bug is not present in the current release.
- A duplicate status will be given if the tester notices the flaw or problem early.
- When a bug is delivered to a developer to address, it will get the status "IN-PROGRESS."
8. What is contained in the test strategy?
The test strategy contains an introduction, resources, scope, and timeline for test activities, as well as information on the different tests to take place.
9. What are border testing and branch testing?
Branch testing tests all of the code's branches at once. Boundary testing concentrates on the software's limited circumstances.
10. What is Agile testing, and why is it important?
Agile testing is software testing conducted with agile principles guiding the process. Unlike standard testing procedures, Agile testing requires the testing team to conduct testing immediately after the development team finishes coding.
11. What is a test case?
A test case is a condition that the software product under testing should satisfy. It contains details about the test's procedures, requirements, testing environment, and results.
12. What do stress, load, and volume testing entail?
Load testing is the process of testing an application under a significant but anticipated load. Here, the load is basically the volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc.
Stress testing is the process of raising or accelerating the system's load above its typical range.
Volume testing is the process of determining whether the system is capable of handling the necessary data volumes, user requests, etc.
13. What exactly is a use case, and what is included in it?
The term use case refers to a document that details the user activity and the system response for specific functionality. It includes a cover page, specific requirements, pre-conditions, and post-conditions, as well as a table of contents, the flow of events, and revision history.
14. What are CRUD tests, and how are they conducted?
CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update, and Delete. CRUD testing is a black-box testing technique that assesses database functionality.
15. What is thread testing?
Thread testing validates the critical functional capabilities of a specific task called a thread. The testing team performs thread testing at the onset of integration testing.
16. What is configuration management?
Configuration management describes the documentation of any modifications made to a project. Release control, change control, and revision control are the most important configuration management components.
17. What is ad-hoc testing?
In ad-hoc testing, the tester randomly tests the system's functioning in an effort to break it. It is unstructured testing that takes place without any planning and documentation. As a result, it does not involve any test case preparation, test execution strategy, and requirement specification.
Ad hoc testing has the following traits:
- It takes place after formal testing concludes.
- Its primary goal is to malfunction the program without using a predetermined procedure.
- Ad hoc testers should be knowledgeable about the product they are testing.
18. What are a test driver and a test stub, and why are they necessary?
The stub is the software component that needs to be tested. It is employed in a top-down manner.
The component being tested is called by the driver. It is utilized in a bottom-up strategy.
When only module X has been developed, and we need to test the interface between modules X and Y, it is necessary. Therefore, we cannot just test module X; however, if there is a dummy module, we can use it to test module X.
19. List out the roles of the Software Quality Assurance engineer.
A software quality assurance engineer has the following duties:
- Writing source code
- Software design
- Control of source code
- Reviewing code
- Change management
- Configuration management
- Integration of software
- Program testing
- Release management process
20. Explain what bug triage is.
Bug triage reviews bugs to make sure that they are valid, reproducible, and hold accurate information needed to resolve those bugs. Once you triage bugs, they’re scheduled for testing based on priority.
21. What is a cause-and-effect diagram?
A cause-and-effect diagram is a visual depiction of inputs and the effects they have on corresponding outputs, and it can be used to create test cases.
Intermediate Interview Questions For QA Engineer
Now, let’s cover questions you might hear in a quality assurance interview for experienced professionals.
22. What is a software testing test metric, and what data does it contain?
The term "Test Metric'' refers to the accepted practices for testing software. These data describe the format or substance of an exam. It includes details such as total tests run, tests passed, tests failed, tests deferred, and tests that were successfully completed the first time.
23. Describe the distinction between retesting and regression testing.
- Regression testing is a type of analysis used to determine whether recent code changes have had an impact on previously unaffected features.
- Regression testing's primary goal is to ensure any code modifications cannot negatively affect functionalities already in place.
- General testing; it may be carried out whenever there are code changes.
- On the test cases that passed, it was executed.
- Regression testing can be automated, although manual testing is more expensive and time-consuming.
- Regression testing does not include defect verification.
- Regression testing is carried out concurrently with retesting, depending on the resources that are available.
- Retesting entails testing modules that were unsuccessful during the previous run.
- Retesting is performing testing on already corrected flaws.
- Planned; not spontaneous.
- Cannot be automated
- Includes defect verification.
- Always performed after retesting because retesting has a higher priority.
24. List out software quality steps through the software development cycle.
- Review the requirements before starting the development phase.
- Review the code.
- Write comprehensive test cases.
- Session-based testing.
- Risk-based testing.
- Prioritize bugs based on usage.
- Form dedicated security and performance testing team.
- Run a regression cycle.
- Perform sanity tests on production.
- Simulate customer accounts on production.
- Include software QA Test Reports.
25. Describe the principles of "Test Driven Development."
Test-driven development requires you to make test cases before writing actual code.
26. What are the types of documents in SQA?
Here are the various types of documents in SQA:
- Requirement document
- Test Metrics
- Transaction mix
- Test log
- Test incident report
- Test summary report
- User profiles
- Test cases and test plan
- Task distribution flow chart
27. What information should your QA documentation contain?
QA testing documentation must have:
- Listed flaws found prioritized based on severity.
- Descriptions for each demand or business function.
- Inspection reports
- Test strategy and test case
- Bug reports
- User guides
- Distinct reports for management and users
28. Describe MR and the information it contains.
Modification Request, often known as a defect report, is referred to as MR. It’s meant to report software defects, issues, and ideas.
29. What is a matrix of traceability?
A traceability matrix is a document that links test cases with user requirements. Its primary goal is to ensure that all test cases are included and no functionality is overlooked while conducting software testing.
30. Differentiate between verification and validation.
Verification assesses development-phase procedures to see if they adhere to user requirements. For example, static testing is verification. Before validation, verification testing is carried out. It is not related to running the code. It entails tasks including desk checks, walkthroughs, inspections, and reviews. Before the development cycle, the bugs are discovered. It complies with the standards outlined in the SRS paper.
The QA team provides verification, ensuring that the program complies with the specifications as down in the SRS document.
Validation evaluates the product to ensure it satisfies requirements after the development phase, and after verification.
It uses techniques like non-functional testing, white box testing, and black box testing. The bugs are discovered after the development cycle. It determines whether or not it satisfies the requirements.
31. What is the QA team's role in software development?
By keeping an eye on the entire development process, the QA team assures the quality. QA monitors results and modifies procedures as necessary to fulfill expectations.
The role of quality control includes:
- Keeping an eye on the ongoing development process.
- Planning, testing, and process execution.
- Guarantees that test cases can be traced back to the requirements
32. What are the risk dimensions in QA?
The risk dimensions in QA are as follows:
- Timetables: Unrealistic timetables for developing a large piece of software in a single day.
- Client: Uncertain requirements, unclear requirements, and changing requirements.
- Human Resource: Lack of adequate human resources with the required level of expertise in the project.
- System Resources: Failure to acquire all necessary resources, including hardware and software tools or software licenses, will have a negative impact.
- Quality: Various circumstances, such as a shortage of resources, a strict delivery timetable, and frequent modifications to the requirement, significantly impact the quality of the application under test (AUT).
33. What is monkey testing?
Monkey testing is a type of black box testing that assesses an application by supplying random inputs to check the system's behavior (i.e., whether it crashes). When a user gives random inputs to test the system's behavior, this type of testing takes place automatically.
Monkey testing doesn’t require test cases. It can also be automated, meaning we can create scripts or programs to generate random inputs to monitor how the system behaves. When conducting stress or load testing, this method is helpful.
Two varieties of monkeys exist: smart monkeys and dumb monkeys.
- Smart monkeys have a basic understanding of the application.
- They are aware of which page will be redirected from which application page.
- Additionally, they are aware of the validity or otherwise of the inputs they are supplying.
- They are wise enough to report a bug if they detect any errors.
- Additionally, they are aware of the buttons and options.
- Dumb monkeys have no knowledge about the application.
- They are unaware of the pages to which an application will redirect.
- They supply arbitrary inputs and are unaware of the application's beginning and end.
- Despite their lack of application knowledge, they still discover issues like hardware or environmental failure.
- They also have limited knowledge of an application's UI and functionality.
34. What distinguishes preventive from reactive approaches?
Preventive Approach: This is a strategy used to avoid problems, also known as the verification process. Tests are created early in the software development lifecycle, prior to the software even being created. This strategy falls under the category of quality analysis, where testers attempt to stop faults in their tracks.
Reactive Strategy: Also referred to as the validation process, a reactive strategy is meant to find (or react) to flaws. The tests in this method are created to run after the software development, and it’s governed by Quality Control.
35. What does a quality audit mean?
A processor quality system's on-site verification process, such as an inspection or examination, is referred to as an audit. Quality auditing is the systematic examination of a quality system by a team of auditors, either internal or external.
To ensure that the organization has clearly defined internal system monitoring procedures linked to effective action, quality audits are carried out at preset intervals. A crucial management technique for confirming objective proof of procedures is the audit.
Advanced QA Tester Interview Questions
In this section, let’s explore more tricky QA interview questions intended for experts.
36. What is a test plan?
The test plan document is a document that details how all testing procedures will be carried out in order to deliver a high-quality product. It is the result of a number of processes, including the creation of product descriptions, SRSs, or Use Case documentation for all upcoming project tasks. A test manager or test lead is often responsible for creating a test plan, and its main purpose is to outline who will conduct which tests and when, as well as what needs to be tested.
37. How are test cases created?
There are two methods for creating test cases:
Black box testing
The testers consider the software as a black box with inputs and outputs in this specification-based testing method. In "black box" testing, the testers are unaware of the internal workings of the software; instead, they are only aware of the functions it performs. This kind of testing methodology is acceptable for all testing levels when the specification is present.
White box testing
White box testing assesses the logic and internal organization of the code. The testers must possess coding skills in order to implement white box testing so that they can work with internal code. They investigate the code and identify the problematic unit.
38. How do you know when enough tests have been administered?
This is one of the most important QA testing interview questions. Sometimes, as a project manager or project lead, we may have to cancel testing to launch the product quicker. In those circumstances, we must determine whether the product has received sufficient testing from testers.
- If the testing or release deadlines are met.
- If the risk in the real-time project is below the permitted level.
- If all the critical bugs and roadblocks have been resolved.
- If our submission meets the requirements.
39. What distinguishes exploratory testing from adhoc testing?
Adhoc testing is a non-formal process of testing software without any planning, requirements, specifications, or documentation. Its fundamental purpose is to attain perfection in testing. Most entry-level professionals can conduct adhoc testing — you don’t need an experienced testing engineer.
Exploratory testing requires documentation and proper planning. It entails simultaneous learning, test design, and test execution. A methodical strategy, exploratory testing's primary goal is to become familiar with the application. Similar to adhoc testing, exploratory testing does not require an experienced testing engineer.
40. What are the various software testing levels?
Among the software testing levels, unit testing is the lowest level. The software's modules or applications are referred to as units. The programmer who tests the modules also performs unit testing, and immediately fixes any discovered bugs.
All of the tested components are combined to form integration, and they are all tested collectively. Data that moves from one module to another is tested as part of integration testing. In essence, it examines the interaction between two or more modules, but not their functionality alone.
System testing tests the complete or integrated system. It evaluates the software to ensure it complies with standards outlined in the SRS guideline. It conducts both functional and non-functional testing and is the last test.
Customers or users conduct acceptance testing to determine whether the product satisfies their needs.
41. Distinguish between a test strategy and a test plan.
A test plan is a written description of the test's goals, locations, schedule, estimation, and expectations, as well as the resources required for the test. It encourages us to calculate the amount of work necessary to approve the type of application under test.
A test strategy is a group of guiding concepts used in software testing that define the test design and regulate how the process is carried out. It aims to provide software testing with a systematic methodology to guarantee quality, traceability, reliability, and improved planning.
42. What do you know about the Traceability Matrix (TM) in relation to quality control?
A traceability matrix connects any two baseline documents that need a many-to-many link to ensure a complete relationship. It is employed to monitor requirements and confirm they are being met on the current project.
43. What does the defect leakage ratio mean in the context of quality control?
Defect leakage is a statistic used by software testers to assess Quality Assurance (QA) testing efficacy. It represents the proportion between the overall number of flaws assigned to a stage (which are recorded in later stages) and the total number of defects assigned to a stage (which are captured in subsequent stages).
A measurement known as defect leakage shows the efficiency of software testers' testing by tracking the percentage of flaws that pass from one testing step to the next. On the other hand, little defect leaks just serve to confirm the value of the testing team.
44. How well do you comprehend data-driven testing?
Using a table or spreadsheet to hold test data, data-driven testing is a method of software testing. With data-driven testing, testers can create a single test script that can execute tests on all test data from a table and anticipate that the test results will be delivered in the same table. You might also hear data-driven testing referred to as table-driven testing or parameterized testing.
45. How can you make sure your testing is exhaustive and thorough?
You can use the Requirement Traceability Matrix and Test Coverage Matrix to ensure thorough testing.
These technical QA interview questions will assist you in gaining a thorough knowledge of quality assurance concepts. You can pick the concepts from here and learn them in-depth via online resources.
Once you’ve reviewed these questions, keep these bonus tips in mind until your interview date.
- Prepare an up-to-date resume tailored to the position’s requirements.
- Mention any software testing certification or course you have taken in your resume, cover letter, and interview.
- Update yourself with cutting-edge software testing trends.
- Consult with any quality assurance engineer of your acquaintance to gain more insights into the current job landscape.
- Talk about your manual testing and open-source experience.
How to Write a Good QA Job Resume
We’ve fast-forwarded to the interview — but what if you’re still in the application stage? You’ll need to craft an enticing, professional resume. Here are some tips to do so:
- Include your most up-to-date work experience.
- Add demonstrated examples of your prowess and ability to solve problems.
- Have a past manager or colleague review your resume.
- Try not to exceed more than two pages.
- Focus on results over tenure.
The aforementioned QA interview questions are a fantastic head start for your QA engineer interview. We hope it helps you feel more confident in your journey toward becoming a QA professional.
Curious about other ways to expand your QA knowledge?
Frequently Asked Questions
1. How Can I Prepare For a QA Interview?
Before a QA interview, you should:
- Research the role and company.
- Study the company’s QA processes.
- Review your past QA experiences and think of eloquent ways to communicate them.
- Practice QA interview questions with a friend.
2. What Questions Are Asked in a QA Interview?
Some software qa interview questions include:
- What is a bug?
- What is the difference between software testing and QA?
- Where should QA start?
The questions cover practical use cases of QA in projects. In this article, we’ve displayed top interview questions helpful for your next round of interviews.
3. What is the Difference between QA & QC?
QA is dedicated to processes and procedures that validate the quality of a software product, while QC focuses on product defects and bugs post-development.
4. Are QA Jobs Easy?
QA jobs require a ton of focus. The processes might feel repetitive, so it’s easy to lose track of the task at hand. QA professionals should have a strong sense of discipline to maintain concentration throughout their detailed, tedious tasks.
5. How Long Should the Interview Take?
Between 45 minutes to an hour. Of course, more advanced QA position interviews might require longer, or even multiple interviews.